How to manage digital customer relationships in tourism?

Have you had problems to manage customer relationships? Don’t you know how to keep your customers satisfied and loyal? Are you unsure, how to maintain customer relationships, especially in a digital world? This blog post will help you to understand how to deal with customers in tourism. Before we move on to the practical part it is worthwhile to take a little sneak peek behind the curtains to understand the history and reasons for relationship marketing.

Meaning of customer relationship marketing

 Francis Buttle studied the history, meaning and characteristics of relationship marketing.¹ He found that it is about healthy relationships including concern, commitment, trust and service. Meaning of relationship marketing started to grow as a term and strategy in early 1990 after the booms of mass marketing and customer segmentation. Behind this rising was incremental competition. Also, a need to stand out other ways when it was not possible to compete with the quality of products anymore.

Nowadays your product only is not enough to beat your rivals. Rather you need high-class service and focus on your customers. Marios Sotiriadis has researched business relationships in online distribution channels.² He discovered that internet has changed tourism markets from a consumer-centric market to a consumer-driven market. That means there is more competition in the online tourism industry. So, markets are today more consumer- and technology-driven. But what are the profits of relationship marketing and why it should be maintained?

Goals and benefits of customer relationship marketing

Rodoula Tsiotsou and Ronald Goldsmith have studied the goals and benefits of relationship marketing to understand, why it is so valuable for companies.³  They showed that relationship marketing is nowadays one of the most important tasks of marketing managers. The main goal is to create long-term connections and involvements with consumers. You need to attract customers, maintain the relationships and enhance them.  Your customers will get lifetime value. Simultaneously your company will have a revenue stream, positive word-of-mouth (WOM) and repeated transactions.

Here are five steps what need to be considered if you want to reach customer relationships.³ Firstly, acquire your customers with advertisement, promotions or WOM. Before that, you, of course, need to know, who your customers are. Secondly, you have to retain your customers and create an emotional bond with them to keep them loyal. When you know your current customers there’s a possibility to develop your products and services even more personal. You can also ask for help from your loyal customers and have consultation and co-creation with them. Finally, you can try customer conversion with influencers to spread the positive WOM. But is relationship marketing always just positive and are there some risks to fail?

Christina Öberg has studied the pros and cons of relationship marketing.⁴ She founded that there can be both negative and positive effects in short- and long-term. Let’s focus now more on the long-term effects. If you are having a positive long-term relationship with your customer, it will give a great opportunity to develop your products and services more to personalize them. You will enjoy a stream of satisfied customers and get even more through positive WOM. That probably increases your revenue.

How to balance between different customer's needs? @Joshua Coleman / Unsplash

The risk to fail?

But there is the risk to develop your products too much to fulfil the need of one specific customer. People are individuals and not all of them want the same personalization. Try to find a balance between different customers. Developing products is expensive and when it is not working, it decreases your incomes and may affect a bad reputation. Both Öberg⁴ and Tsiotsou and Goldsmith³ stated that it is cheaper to keep your current customers than get new ones. Also having negative WOM is a larger risk than the benefits you will get through positive WOM. But how to avoid these risks and get more benefits? Keep reading if you want to learn how to manage digital customer relationships in tourism.

Irene Gil-Saura, María Eugenia Ruiz-Molina and Beatriz Moliner-Velázquez have researched customer relations and their loyalty in the tourism industry.⁵ They agree that it is better to maintain long-term relationships with the customer to give more value and to achieve commitment and loyalty. They also stated that in B2C business can be seen three aspects of relation benefits – confidence benefits, social benefits and special treatment benefits. These confidence benefits are psychological factors. Social benefits are bonding with customers and special treatment benefits are service customization and economic benefits. When all these three aspects are taking into account and balanced, it is easier to get a higher level of loyalty and create better relationships with customers. Special treatment benefits are the most used ways to achieve customer’s heart.

How to convert a connection to a relationship in 5 steps?
 1 Know your customers

Before you can manage and create relationships, you need to know your customers. Who they are and what they really want from your company? Why they are your customers and what you want to offer them? When you find the answers to these questions, you can move on to the next step.

2 Listen to your customers 

Christopher Reichstein and Ralf-Christian Härting have studied potentials of changing customer needs in the digital world.⁶ They found that customer relationship marketing is one of the core assets of the company to fulfil customer’s needs. That is why it is important to recognize needs and meet them. Especially in tourism digital services, digital marketing, data mining and online travel communities are important potentials of changing customer’s needs.

To be effective and offer something special, you need to listen to your customers. Anna Krizanova, George Lazaroui, Lubica Gajanova, Jana Kliestikova, Margareta Nadanyiova and Dominika Moravcikova have researched the effectiveness of marketing communication.⁷ They stated that to cover customer’s needs you need to focus on stimulating, developing and increasing sales.

3 Give Value

Not only needs play an important role in relationship marketing. Martina Gallarza, Irene Gil-Saura and Morris Holbrook have researched customer value in tourism services in meaning for a relationship marketing approach.⁸ They stated that relationship marketing is one of the most closely linked to the role of customer value. It makes it an important component of the customer’s decision-making process. When your products and services co-create value, it will also boost the positive WOM and increase transactions.

 4 Use Big Social Data to analyze and develop

In the digital world using and analyzing Big Social Data is necessary to beat your rivals. Maria Teresa Duomo, Debora Tortora, Pantea Foroudi, Alex Giordano, Giuseppe Festa and Gerardino Metallo have studied digital transformation and tourist experience co-design.⁹ They found that the meaning of creating value is in a key role. It is also essential to understand how to use Big Social Data and how it can strengthen digital collaboration and customer experience.  Technology has increased information sharing and value co-creation together with customers. Participate your customers to share their experiences by storytelling and giving value to encourage potential customers to choose your company.

Big Social Data and user-generated content appear to be key sources by managing customer relationships. You can utilize Big Social Data to develop your products and services to fulfil better your customer’s need.⁶ Social media and influencer marketing provides you with good opportunities to characterize your products. But remember to not personalize too much and follow ethical practices in data management.

 5 Know your business and be one step ahead

Especially in the tourism business is better to be careful with one’s own actions. The effects of negative WOM might be crucial. Do not overthink but keep your focus on customers and their needs. The tourism industry is now a consumer-driven market.

Ibrahim Yilmaz has researched service quality and marketing.¹⁰ He has used as a base of his research the refreshed version of the Service Quality (Gap) Model by Zeithaml, Berry and Parasuraman (1988). That model focuses on gaps between customer expectations and management perceptions in service quality. So, the dilemma is, how to fulfil the expectations and give quality service maintaining customer relationships at the same time. When the quality of your products and services are good, you will more likely get positive WOM and more loyal customers.

 

To sum up, remember to attract, maintain, develop and enhance your customer relationships. You cannot fully please everyone but try to find a happy medium and enjoy the flow. Give your customers a stage to express themselves in social media channels and encourage them to tell about their experiences and feelings. Listening is in a key role. Remember to reward your customers and create something new with good taste. Be you and people will value your achievements.

Acknowledgements

This blog post was written as a part of the Information Technology in Tourism Business course at the International Master’s Degree Programme in Tourism Marketing and Management (University of Eastern Finland Business School). Read more about the programme at https://www.uef.fi/tmm

References:

¹Buttle, F. 1996. Relationship Marketing – Theory and Practice. London: Paul Chapman Publishing Ltd, 1-8.

²Sotiriadis, M. 2018. Evolving destination and business relationships in online distribution channels – Disintermediation and re-intermediation. In Gursoy, D. & Chi, C (Editors),  The routledge handbook of destination marketing (488-501). New York: Taylor & Francis Group.

³Tsiotsou, R. & Goldsmith, R. 2012. Strategic marketing in tourism services. UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 139-146.

⁴Öberg, C. 2011. Pros and cons of long-term customer relationship. In Farkas, V. (Editor), Customer Relations – Business issues, competition and entrepreneurship (129-141). New York: Nova Sciences Publisher.

⁵Gil-Saura, I., Ruiz-Molina, M-E. & Moliner-Velazquez, B. 2011. Customer relations and loyalty-based segmen-tation: A B2B approach in the tourism industry. In Farkas, V. (Editor), Customer Relations – Business issues, competition and entrepreneurship (115-128). New York: Nova Sciences Publisher.

⁶Reichstein, C. & Härting, R-C. 2018. Potentials of changing customer needs in a digital world – a conceptual model and recommendations for action in tourism. Elsevier: Procedia Computer Science 126.

⁷Krizanova, A., Lazaroui, G., Gajanova, L., Kliestikova, J., Nadanyiova, M. & Moravcikova, D. 2019. The Effectiveness of Marketing Communication and Importance of Its Evaluation in an Online Environment. In Cristobal-Fransi, E., Ramón, N., Ferrer-Rosell, B., Marine-Roig, E. & Martin-Fuentes, E. (Editors), Sustainable Tourism Marketing (28). Basel: MDPI.

⁸Gallarza, M., Gil-Saura, I. & Holbrook, M. 2012. Customer Value in Tourism Services: Meaning and Role for a Relationship Marketing Approach. In Tsioutsou, R. & Goldsmith, R. (Editors), Strategic marketing in tourism services (147-162). UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

⁹Cuomo, M.T., Dordora, T. Foroudi, P., Giordano, A., Festa, G. & Metallo, G. 2020. Digital transformation and tourist experience co-design: Big social data for planning cultural tourism. Elsevier: Technological Forecasting & Social Change 162.

¹⁰Yilmaz, I. 2018. Service quality and marketing. In Gursoy, D. & Chi, C. (Editors), The routledge handbook of destination marketing (92-99). New York: Taylor & Francis Group.

How can Tourism Businesses successfully implement Social Selling?

Have you ever wondered what kind of new ways there are to benefit from social media? Or how tourism businesses could use social networks to engage with their customers even more? The key term in this text will be social selling. Social selling can be defined as a modern way to create and develop relationships with potential customers (Minsky & Quesenberry, 2016). Before getting there, we will familiarize ourselves with social media in business-to-business (B2B) marketing. This way, we can understand the important theoretical aspects of social selling. After that, social selling is utilized as a term and as a tool for tourism businesses to enhance their social media marketing.

B2B Social media marketing in a Nutshell

Social media has become a phenomenon of our time. It is inevitable that the role it has in terms of communication and marketing is increasing all the time. For a while now, the interest in using social media in B2B operations have increased. B2B marketing in social media is a tool for businesses where they can integrate already existing marketing strategies.(Bodnar & Cohen 2012, 3.)

Let us ask, why waste time on implementing already functional marketing strategy to social media? First, statistics show that average daily social media usage was 144 minutes in 2019 and global population usage was 49 percent (Clement 2020, “How much time do people spend on social media?”, para 1). It is clear how strong a platform it really is. Social media marketing can help businesses to do marketing in a smarter way when contributed well. With social media, businesses can reduce expenses, provide a clearer return of investment (ROI) and allow two-way communication between businesses and customers with more positive interactions. (Bodnar & Cohen 2012, 3-4: Agnihotri, Dingus, Hu & Krush 2015.)

Customer satisfaction and Information go Hand In Hand

Agnihotri et al (2015) emphasize the importance of information technology in their article. Using it together with sales technology will positively affect information communication. When a business has effective information communication it will generate responsiveness and customer satisfaction. To demonstrate this to practice, Agnihotri et al (2015) researched this theory by using data reports of sales professionals and implementing structural equation modelling. The key factor to achieve customer satisfaction is sharing information that is important for customers and delivers timely responses. Overall, the study indicates that social media indeed plays a major role when it comes to communicating information. To support this, a survey made by Statista confirms that social media have increased people’s access to information and made communication easier. (Clement 2020, “Global impact of social media”, para 1.)

Photo by Nikita Kachanovsky on Unsplash

According to Leung, Law, van Hoof & Buhalis (2013) tourism industry identifies the opportunity to enhance communication and marketing with social media functions. In practice, this means stimulating demand via travel blogs with links to the company’s web site or booking platforms. TripAdvisor and other online communities are considered as great sources to get to know the customer and what they like and dislike (Leung et al 2013). This goes hand in hand what Agnihotri et al (2015) demonstrated in their research about the importance of communicating the right information and responsive actions from the company at social media platforms. Tourism businesses focusing on communication with people is a way to reach customer satisfaction if we implement findings from Agnihotri et al (2015). This is especially valuable as tourism business is all about companies selling experiences and intangible products. This why customers decision-making process is filled with risks. Creating close relationships with customers plays an important factor to affect decision-making positively.
What is special about social selling?
Now that we have emphasized the important role of social media marketing, we can focus on a different way of implementing it. As mentioned at the beginning of this post, social selling is all about creating relationships with potential customers and one-to-one communication between salesperson and buyer. The key to social selling is to be pro-active, to reach out to customers before they are even thinking of purchasing. This is also where it differentiates with social media marketing. With social media marketing, companies are engaging company brand awareness among bigger audience instead of focusing on deeper one-to-one interactions as in social selling. (Minsky & Quesenberry, 2016.)

Photo by inlytics on Unsplash

How can tourism businesses succeed in Social Selling?

In order for businesses to succeed on social selling, Minsky and Quesenberry (2016) highlight the importance of co-operation between the marketing and sales team. The marketing department should train sales personnel to use social media effectively in different channels and to use social media software if the business has one. This way, sales personnel understand the social media guidelines and customers’ interest and needs when it comes to online content. The key objective to remember here is how Shanks summarized it: “Social selling is a team sport, not a showcase for great individual contributions”. (Shanks 2016, 1-5.)

Social selling is still unfamiliar phenomena in the tourism industry. This why it is vital to implement social selling studies and theories to help tourism businesses. The following framework is for tourism businesses who are new to social selling. It is created by using Shanks’ (2016, 57) guide for sales personnel. A DMO is used as an example but any tourism business can benefit from it.

Social selling framework

The important question when starting a social selling career is: who are my buyers? It all starts with customer information gathered by the company. A CRM software where all the buyer related information can be found is important. DMOs could use the information from CRM software to find the right audience on social networks. Great tool for this is LinkedIn Sales Navigator where you can easily highlight the potential buyers. (Shanks 2016, 72-75.)

Now we have found our customers. The next step is to provide them with the right kind of insight.  According to Shanks (2016, 87) “buyers are looking for teachers or consultants, not order-takers or caretakers”. The goal is to solve the customer’s problems. This is exactly what a good DMO is all about. They are maintaining and developing destinations. To be successful, DMOs need to “teach” potential buyers about the destination and emphasize the right information to be an attractive destination for them. A great example of sharing educational content is Finnair’s Instagram takeovers by employees. Viewers get a real-life insight into different work positions around the organization.

Engaging is important in social selling. According to Nunan, Sibai, Schivinski & Christodoulides (2018) to understand customers, businesses should monitor social media comments. When approaching customers, they could generate surveys, share information about new product testings and of course, share stories (Nunan et al 2018). In addition, sales personnel should also use personal profiles to communicate and engage with customers in LinkedIn. It is the modern version of business cards after all. Last but not least, developing is required. Businesses need to always set goals. This way it is possible to measure if we are heading in the right direction. Monitoring likes, comments, shares, mentions and retweets is a must.

To sum up

Social selling is still an unknown term in the tourism industry. It has not yet been researched a lot. However, many studies indicate the importance of social media and creating close relationships with customers. This is where social selling comes in. It can be an asset for tourism businesses when used correctly. Businesses can make the most out of social selling by collaborating marketing and sales team together. In addition, they need to be active on their networks. It is vital to know what customers are talking about online. Two-way conversation is the key objective of social selling. Now, more than ever, it is important to engage with potential customers.

Acknowledgements

This blog post was written as a part of the Information Technology in Tourism Business course at the International Master’s Degree Programme in Tourism Marketing and Management (University of Eastern Finland Business School). Read more about the programme at https://www.uef.fi/tmm

References

Agnihotri, R., Dingus, R., Hu, M.Y & Krush, M.T. 2015.  Social media: Influencing customer satisfaction in B2B sales, Industrial Marketing Management. 1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2015.09.003.

Bodnar, K. & Cohen, J. 2012. The B2B Social Media Book: Become a Marketing Superstar by Generating Leads with Blogging, LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook, Email, and More. Hoboken, NJ. 3-10.

Clement, J. 2020. Daily social media usage worldwide 2012-2019. Retrieved October 29, 2020, from https://www.statista.com/statistics/433871/daily-social-media-usage-worldwide/.

Leung, D., Law, R., van Hoof, H. & Buhalis, D. 2013. Social Media in Tourism and Hospitality. A Literature Review, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. 30:1-2, 3-22.

Minsky, L. & Quesenberry K.A. 2016. How B2B Sales Can Benefit from Social Selling. Harvard Business Review. 1-6. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2016/11/84-of-b2b-sales-start-with-a-referral-not-a-salesperson.

Nunan, D., Sibai, O., Schivinski, B. & Christodoulides, G. 2018. Reflections on “social media: Influencing customer satisfaction in B2B sales” on a research agenda. Industrial Marketing Management. 1-7 doi: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2018.03.009

Newberry, C. 2019. Social Selling: What it is, Why You Should Care, and How to Do It Right. Retrieved  October 31, 2020, from https://blog.hootsuite.com/what-is-social-selling/#care.

Shanks, J. 2016. Social Selling Mastery: Scaling up Your Sales and Marketing Machine for the Digital Buyer. John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.ezproxy.uef.fi:2443/lib/uef-ebooks/reader.action?docID=4648728.

How a starting tourism business creates customer value by adopting digital marketing technology?

How a new tourism business creates customer value by adopting digital marketing technology?

Everybody is online today and everybody is expecting all the noteworthy and legitimate running businesses to be there as well. If the consumer can not find your online presence the chances are your business goes unnoticed. Even worse it builds an image of untrustworthiness in the minds of the consumers. The potential customer may presume the business can not deliver what the customer is expecting. If the business fails in the first customer touch point the game is over before it even began, no matter how good the service or a product in reality is.

travel planning

Where to start when you´re starting- the do´s and don’t´s

 Alford and Page state in their study of technology adoption in marketing that SMEs who have a strong Web presence grow twice as quickly as those who have no or minimal presence1. It is essential to seriously think about implementing technology from the very beginning. As a starting business owner, you should start by thinking about what you want to achieve and who you want to reach. Once the business plan is ready, the goals, strategy and the understanding of the desired customer is clear it is time to use this knowledge as a basis in creating a suitable digital marketing plan. The plan should not be a separate aspect but rather intertwined with all that is in the very core of the business.

Dredge et al. examined the challenges and opportunities of digitalisation in tourism listing the needs of tourism businesses when taking up new technology2. They identified five topics: skills, mentoring support, finance, policy support, and infrastructure.

 Skills.

The digital competencies of your business will play a key role in the successful uptake of digital technologies. Often tourism businesses lack the necessary technical resources in their workforce to fully realise digital potentials. This can be due to a number of factors such as a lack of knowledge in identifying required digital skills to limited staffing issues. These restrict the time and effort which can be applied to learning new digital processes. You should map your knowledge and see if you already have knowledgeable personnel in the company. Or think do you want to outsource completely or partly.

Mentoring support

One option is to use mentoring initiatives. Mentoring can boost innovation, enhance creativity and ideation and assist with capacity building. It may improve connectivity between tourism enterprises, technology companies, the arts and cultural sector, and other start-ups. Mentoring reduces the distance and improves the timeliness, of advice between those that have the expertise and those that need to learn. It can be a prolific co-operation between two or more companies where all parties deliver something the other needs helping their businesses thrive. It is smart to keep in mind to not to bite off more than you can chew and here the importance of networking stands out.

Finance

Lack of finance is identified as the number one obstacle preventing the implementation of digital technologies in tourism businesses. There is a significant concern amongst tourism businesses that the cost of implementing new digital technologies will be more than the gains. Analyse what technology your business can benefit from and make a decision. You can start by taking up a few platforms and expanding from there according to the set budget. It is important to remember to build digital marketing around your customers and choose channels accordingly. Thinking which technology to choose to reach the specific customers and which technology brings the most value to the customer in return. Starting smaller and smart saves time and assets.

Policy support

You need policy initiatives and actions to support business awareness of new technologies. They make clear the benefits of their implementation. Your business requires support in business planning and decision-making with regards to new technologies to ensure efficient utilisation. Do research on the available technologies and find what best suits your needs and what serves your customers best. Find out what is out there, any new innovations that would suit you and your customers´, needs. Choose only appropriate, functional and effective technologies.

Infrastructure

The geographic location of tourism enterprises greatly affects their access to adequate digital infrastructures. In developed countries, connections tend to already be adequate even in more remote areas. Still, businesses in urban settings benefit from modern wireless and fibre broadband connections. The infrastructure in rural or more remote areas can be less developed. Getting your software and connections up-to-date is important so that the basic tools at hand are functional.

Are you (all) motivated enough?

Different personal motivations, corporate culture and managers attitude affect the willingness to adopt technology, which is traditionally explained by the technology acceptance model (TAM). Ritz et al. studied the combination of TAM and the do-it-yourself (DIY) behaviour model in adopting new technologies. They stated that small businesses are less likely to participate in digital marketing than larger businesses3. TAM evaluates the ease of use and perceived usefulness of the technology. DIY motivators are economic benefits and lack of quality in existing services. In other words, managers should make the use of technology easy and the economic advantages and other benefits that come with technology apparent. This applies to themselves and communicating this to the whole team.

Alford and Page found out that small business owner-managers have a positive attitude and a real appetite for adopting technology for marketing1. If you can channel this attitude successfully to motivate your employees you may be able to get staff involved in creating more innovative marketing content. This may serve a wider spectrum of customer expectations that exist towards your business.

So what is customer value and how it is created using technology?

 According to Holbrook customer value is the basic foundation for everything in marketing. It can be defined as a preference, experience, interactive and relativistic, that is comparative, personal, and situational4. Komppula and Gartner talk further about desired value, which refers to the value that customers want to receive from products or services and their providers. Received value refers to the value customers have actually experienced through specific customer interactions5. Zeithaml encapsulates the definition by stating that value represents “a trade-off of the salient give and get components”6. All the definitions explain what exactly is the customer value that is created when a business can answer to the needs and wants of their customers.

The product of tourism business is a service that can be thought of as an intangible object which is more difficult to define and label. The service involves emotions, hopes and dreams and the pursuit of satisfaction. As Neuhofer et al. state in their study experiences constitute the essence of the tourism industry7. Holbrook continues that therefore customer value resides neither in the product purchased, in the brand chosen, nor the object possessed but rather in the consumption experiences outcome. People desire not simply the product but rather what is behind the product or service; the satisfaction the experience brings through activity8.

It is all about the experience

It is important to understand the consumer´s journey. How they experience it throughout all the phases of tourism experience which happens before, during and after the service situation as stated by Opute et al9. For a business aiming to achieve improved customer experiential value at a profit, the focus should be to leverage digital technology. This is to fundamentally optimise customer satisfaction. That is why the focus should not be limited to leveraging digital technology to ensure more effective service design and implementation. It should also be about leveraging such technology to drive an integrated implementation strategy. The strategy should recognise the importance of reaching out to customers. This involves engaging actively with them to access customer ideas and suggesting cues for improving their overall experience.

Opute et al. studied the role digital technologies play in tourism customer service experience. They continue by stating and summing up that tourism service providers can leverage digital technologies to drive a customer engagement focus. Doing this higher customer experiential value is reached. At the same time, customer retention and organisational performance improve. Achieving these targets requires the business to interactively engage with customers. By leveraging customer-generated information to fine-tune tourism service design and delivery leave an indelible and memorable impression in the mind of the customers. Customers may attach a high experiential value to a tourism service episode. When this happens they are motivated to undertake a repurchase or re-endorsement of the service. In addition, they want to share their positive service experience afterward9. This reminds the business to put emphasis on the follow-up of the customer visit on the marketing plan.

Ready, engage, interact!

Interaction is what consumers want. They want to be recognized and treated personally. Businesses have to keep in mind that consumers are not completely dependent on communication with the business. They also want to communicate with other consumers and a smart business creates these opportunities. This brings great value to the customer. Customers want honesty and transparency and they go where they can get it. As Prahalad and Ramaswamy 10 found out the consumers can choose the firms they want to have a relationship with. The consumer base this on their own views of how value should be created for them. This reminds the starting tourism business to be humble and how important it is to engage and answer to the customers’ expectations.

Technology adoption has been successful when your business uses technology that is suitable for your strategy. If the technology produces measurable customer value it can be said your business has been very successful. Tapping your digital marketing efforts on all the stages of the tourism experience you maximise the effect and benefit of technology. This way your business ends up creating superb value for the customer.

Acknowledgements

This blog post was written as a part of the Information Technology in Tourism Business course at the International Master’s Degree Programme in Tourism Marketing and Management (University of Eastern Finland Business School). Read more about the programme at https://www.uef.fi/tmm

References

1Alford, Philip & Page, Stephen John. 2015. Marketing technology for adoption by small business. Faculty of Management, Bournemouth University. The Service Industries Journal, 2015-07-07, Vol.35 (11-12-9, p. 655-669. ISSN: 1743-9507 DOI: 10.1080/02642069.2015.1062884

2Dredge, D., Phi, G., Mahadevan, R., Meehan, E. & Popescu, E.S. 2018. Digitalisation in Tourism: In-depth analysis of challenges and opportunities. Low Value procedure GRO-SME-17-C-091-A for Executive Agency for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (EASME) Virtual Tourism Observatory. Aalborg University, Copenhagen. © European Union, 1995-2019. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/vto/documents?page=1. Retrieved 25.10.2020.

8Holbrook M.B. (Ed.). 1999. Consumer value: A framework for analysis and research. London (UK): Routledge.

4Holbrook, M. B. 2005. Customer value and autoethnography: subjective personal introspection and the meanings of a photograph collection. Journal of Business Research, 2005-01, Vol. 58 (1), p. 45-61. ISSN: 0148-2963, DOI: 10.1016/s0148-2963(03)00079-1

5Komppula, R., & Gartner, W. C. 2013. Hunting as a travel experience: An auto-ethnographic study of hunting tourism in Finland and the USA. Tourism Management (1982), 2013-04, Vol.35, p. 168-180.35. ISSN: 0261-5177, DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2012.06.014

7Neuhofer, B., Buhalis, D., & Ladkin, A. 2014. A typology of technology‐enhanced tourism experiences. International Journal of Tourism Research, 2014-07, Vol. 16 (4), p.340-350. ISSN: 1099-2340, DOI: 10.1002/jtr.1958

9Opute, A. P., Irene, B. & Iwu, C. G. 2020. Tourism Service and Digital Technologies: A Value Creation Perspective. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 2020-03-01, Vol. 9 (2). EISNN:2223-814X

10Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. 2004. Co-creation experiences: The next practice in value creation. Journal of interactive marketing, 2004-01, Vol. 18 (3), p.5-14. ISSN:1094-9968, DOI: 10.1002/dir.20015

3Ritz, Wendy, Wolf, Marco & McQuitty, Shaun. 2019. Digital marketing adoption and success for small businesses: The application of the do-it-yourself and technology acceptance models. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing.2019-06-16, Vol.13(2), p.179-203. ISSN:2040-7122. DOI: 10.1108/JRIM-04-2018-0062

6Zeithaml, V. A. 1988. Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: a means-end model and synthesis of evidence. Journal of Marketing, 1988-07-01, vol. 52 (3), p.2-22. ISSN:0022-2429.DOI:10.1177/002224298805200302